Is Buffalo made Halaal by Hanafi Fiqh?

Nowadays, some people known for their ignorance are seen saying that the permissibility of the meat of buffalo is not found in Qur’aan and Hadeeth, rather it is our “Fiqh” that has made it Halaal. The question arises: “Who gave this taqleedi fiqh the authority to declare something Halaal or Haraam?” Allaah (May He be glorified and exalted) said:

وَلَا تَقُولُوا لِمَا تَصِفُ أَلْسِنَتُكُمُ الْكَذِبَ هَـٰذَا حَلَالٌ وَهَـٰذَا حَرَامٌ لِّتَفْتَرُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ لَا يُفْلِحُونَ

And say not concerning that which your tongues put forth falsely: “This is lawful and this is forbidden,” so as to invent lies against Allah. Verily, those who invent lies against Allah will never prosper.

[al-Nahl: 116]

Under the explanation of this verse, Haafidh Ibn Katheer (rahimahullah) said:

“This includes everyone who comes up with an innovation (Bid`ah) for which he has no evidence from the Sharee’ah, or whoever declares something lawful that Allah has forbidden, or whoever declares something unlawful that Allah has permitted, only because it suits his opinions or whim to do so.”

[Tafseer Ibn Katheer: 4/75]

This proves that Halaal and Haraam is only that which Allaah and his Messenger (peace be upon him) have declared to be Halaal and Haraam.

It should be remembered that The Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) brought complete Deen to us. He (peace be upon him), by the command of Allaah, has described to us, Jaami Usool for Halaal and Haraam, in the light of which we can know the permissibility or the prohibition of anything.

Evidence # 1:

Allaah the Exalted says:

أُحِلَّتْ لَكُم بَهِيمَةُ الْأَنْعَامِ

“Lawful unto you (for food) are all four-footed cattles.”

[Al-Maidah: 1]

The animals that are Haraam are an exception through other dalaail, as is indicated in this verse.

Imaam Qataadah bin Da’amah (Taabi’ee) said in the explanation of this verse:

“الانعام كلها”

“All the cattles [are made Halaal in this verse]”

[Tafseer Tabari: 9/455, Chain Saheeh]

According to Imaam Ahl us-Sunnah, Ibn Jareer at-Tabari (rahimahullah), this is the most authentic saying.

Ibn Atiyyah said:

“هذا قول حسن”

“This opinion is good”

[Tafseer ash-Shawkaani: 2/4]

Under the explanation of this verse, Muhammad Shafee’ Uthmaani (Deobandi) writes:

“The word ‘An’aam’ is a plural of the word ‘Na’mun’. The eight types of pets such as: Camel, Cow, Buffalo, Goat etc which are mentioned in Surah An’aam are called ‘An’aam’. The word ‘Baheema’ was general but the word ‘An’aam’ made it Khaas (Specific), which comes to mean that the eight types of domestic animals are made Halaal. As you have just read under the word ‘Aqood’ that it includes all obligations. One of these obligations is also that which Allaah has ordained upon his servants regarding the fulfillment of Halaal and Haraam. This statement has described that specific obligation that Allaah has made lawful for you Camel, Goat, Cow, and Buffalo etc. We can consume them after slaughtering them according to the rules of Sharee’ah.” [Ma’arif ul-Qur’aan by Muhammad Shafee’ Deobandi: 3/13]

Look! “Mufti Sahab” is proving the permissibility of buffalo from the Qur’aan specifying that Allaah has made Buffalo Halaal.

Evidence # 2:

The Sharee’ah has remained silent concerning buffalo, and it did not say it’s forbidden, therefore, it is Halaal, because:

Allaah the Most High says:

قُل لَّا أَجِدُ فِي مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ مُحَرَّمًا عَلَىٰ طَاعِمٍ يَطْعَمُهُ إِلَّا أَن يَكُونَ مَيْتَةً أَوْ دَمًا مَّسْفُوحًا

“Say: “I find not in that which has been revealed to me anything forbidden to be eaten by one who wishes to eat it, unless it be Maitah (a dead animal) or blood poured forth (by slaughtering or the like)”

[Al-An’aam: 145]

Haafidh Ibn Rajab writes:

فَإِنَّ هَذَا يَدُلُّ عَلَى أَنَّ مَا لَمْ يُوجَدْ تَحْرِيمُهُ، فَلَيْسَ بِمُحَرَّمٍ

“This verse is a proof that if the prohibition (of food or clothing) is not found (in Sharee’ah), then it is not Prohibited.”

[Jaami al-Uloom: 2/166]

Sayyidunah Ibn Abbaas (radiallah anhu) said:

كَانَ أَهْلُ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يَأْكُلُونَ أَشْيَاءَ وَيَتْرُكُونَ أَشْيَاءَ تَقَذُّرًا فَبَعَثَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى نَبِيَّهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَأَنْزَلَ كِتَابَهُ وَأَحَلَّ حَلَالَهُ وَحَرَّمَ حَرَامَهُ فَمَا أَحَلَّ فَهُوَ حَلَالٌ وَمَا حَرَّمَ فَهُوَ حَرَامٌ وَمَا سَكَتَ عَنْهُ فَهُوَ عَفْوٌ وَتَلَا <<قُلْ لَا أَجِدُ فِيمَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ مُحَرَّمًا>> إِلَى آخِرِ الْآيَةِ

“The people of ignorance used to eat some things and avoid some things because they disliked them. Later on, Allah sent His Prophet, revealed His Book, allowed what He allowed, and prohibited what He prohibited. Therefore, whatever Allah allowed is lawful and whatever He prohibited is unlawful. Whatever He did not mention, there is no sin in it (i.e. Permissible). He then recited the Ayah << Say: I find not in that which has been revealed to me anything forbidden >> until the end of Ayah”.

[Sunan Abi Dawood 3800, Chain Saheeh. Imaam Haakim said: “Its chain is Saheeh” (4/115)]

Haafidh Ibn Katheer writes under the explanation of this verse:

وَالْمَقْصُودُ مِنْ سِيَاقِ هَذِهِ الْآيَةِ الْكَرِيمَةِ الرَّدُّ عَلَى الْمُشْرِكِينَ الَّذِينَ ابْتَدَعُوا مَا ابْتَدَعُوهُ، مِنْ تَحْرِيمِ الْمُحَرَّمَاتِ عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ بِآرَائِهِمُ الْفَاسِدَةِ مِنَ البَحِيرة وَالسَّائِبَةِ وَالْوَصِيلَةِ وَالْحَامِ وَنَحْوِ ذَلِكَ، فَأَمَرَ [اللَّهُ] رَسُولَهُ أَنْ يُخْبِرَهُمْ أَنَّهُ لَا يَجِدُ فِيمَا أَوْحَاهُ اللَّهُ إِلَيْهِ أَنَّ ذَلِكَ مُحَرَّمٌ، وَإِنَّمَا حُرِّم مَا ذُكِرَ فِي [هَذِهِ] الْآيَةِ، مِنَ الْمَيْتَةِ، وَالدَّمِ الْمَسْفُوحِ، وَلَحْمِ الْخِنْزِيرِ، وَمَا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ. وَمَا عَدَا ذَلِكَ فَلَمْ يُحَرَّمْ، وَإِنَّمَا هُوَ عَفْوٌ مَسْكُوتٌ عَنْهُ، فَكَيْفَ تَزْعُمُونَ [أَنْتُمْ] أَنَّهُ حَرَامٌ، وَمِنْ أَيْنَ حَرَّمْتُمُوهُ وَلَمْ يُحَرِّمْهُ [اللَّهُ]؟ وَعَلَى هَذَا فَلَا يَنفَى تَحْرِيمُ أَشْيَاءَ أُخَرَ فِيمَا بَعْدَ هَذَا، كَمَا جَاءَ النَّهْيُ عَنْ لُحُومِ الْحُمُرِ وَلُحُومِ السِّبَاعِ، وَكُلِّ ذِي مِخْلَبٍ مِنَ الطَّيْرِ، عَلَى الْمَشْهُورِ مِنْ مَذَاهِبِ الْعُلَمَاءِ.

“The purpose of this honorable ayah is to refute the idolaters who innovated prohibitions for certain kinds of wealth, relying merely on their misguided ideas, such as the Bahirah, Sa’ibah, Wasilah and Ham. Allah commanded His Messenger to inform them that he does not find that such types of animals are prohibited in what Allah revealed to him. In this Ayah, Allah only prohibited dead animals, poured blood, the flesh of swine and what has been slaughtered for something other than Allah. Things other than this are not prohibited here, but rather they are treated as that which does not have a ruling, i.e., permissible. Therefore, how do you — idolaters — claim that such items are prohibited, and why did you prohibit them when Allah did not prohibit them. This principle does not negate the things which were later on prohibited such as the meat of domestic donkey, the meat of [wild animal] that has fangs and the meat of every bird that has talons. This is the famous of all Madhaahib of Scholars.”

[Tafseer Ibn Katheer: 3/103-104]

Moreover, Allaah the Most High says:

وَمَا لَكُمْ أَلَّا تَأْكُلُوا مِمَّا ذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَقَدْ فَصَّلَ لَكُم مَّا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِلَّا مَا اضْطُرِرْتُمْ إِلَيْهِ

“And why should you not eat of that (meat) on which Allah’s Name has been pronounced (at the time of slaughtering the animal), while He has explained to you in detail what is forbidden to you, except under compulsion of necessity?”

[Al-An’aam: 119]

Haafidh Ibn Rajab writes:

فَعَنَّفَهُمْ عَلَى تَرْكِ الْأَكْلِ مِمَّا ذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ، مُعَلِّلًا بِأَنَّهُ قَدْ بَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْحَرَامَ، وَهَذَا لَيْسَ مِنْهُ، فَدَلَّ عَلَى أَنَّ الْأَشْيَاءَ عَلَى الْإِبَاحَةِ، وَإِلَّا لَمَا أَلْحَقَ اللَّوْمَ بِمَنِ امْتَنَعَ مِنَ الْأَكْلِ مِمَّا لَمْ يَنُصَّ لَهُ عَلَى حِلِّهِ بِمُجَرَّدِ كَوْنِهِ لَمْ يَنُصَّ عَلَى تَحْرِيمِهِ.

“Allaah only rebuked on not eating the things upon which Allaah’s name has been taken, and the reason he mentioned is that Haraam is already made clear to you and this thing is not included in that. This noble ayah is a proof that the asal in the things is permissibility. Otherwise, why did Allaah rebuked the one who avoided eating that on which there is no proof for the permissibility or prohibition from the Nass (Qur’aan & Hadeeth)”

[Jaami al-Uloom: 2/166]

It is narrated from Sayyidunah Sa’d bin Abi Waqqaas (radiallah anhu) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) said:

“The most sinful person among the Muslims is the one who asked about something which had not been prohibited, but became prohibited because of his asking”

[Saheeh Bukhaari: 2/1082 H. 7289; Saheeh Muslim: 2/262 H. 2358]

Evidence # 3:

It is narrated from Sayyidunah Abu Hurayrah (radiallah anhu) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) said:

كُلُّ ذِي نَابٍ مِنَ السِّبَاعِ فَأَكْلُهُ حَرَامٌ

“The eating of all fanged beasts of prey is unlawful.”

[Saheeh Muslim: H. 1933]

The buffalo does not come under this rule of Sharee’ah because it is not one of the fanged wild animals. There is no proof on its prohibition as well, therefore, it is Halaal.

Evidence # 4:

There is the consensus (of the whole Ummah) on the permissibility of Buffalo. No one ever declared it Haraam. This is also one of the strong evidences because the Ijmaa (consensus) of Ummah is one of the proofs of Sharee’ah.

Imaam Ibn al-Mundhir said:

وأجمعوا على أن حكم الجواميس حكم البقر

“There is the Ijmaa [of Muslims] on [the issue] that the ruling of Buffalos is the same as cows”

[Al-Ijmaa by Ibn al-Mundhir: 1/45]

Haafidh Ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisi writes:

لَا خِلَافَ فِي هَذَا نَعْلَمُهُ. وَقَالَ ابْنُ الْمُنْذِرِ: أَجْمَعَ كُلُّ مَنْ يُحْفَظُ عَنْهُ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ عَلَى هَذَا، وَلِأَنَّ الْجَوَامِيسَ مِنْ أَنْوَاعِ الْبَقَرِ…

“We do not know of any difference in this. Ibn al-Mundhir has narrated an Ijmaa of Scholars on this, and that Buffalos are one of the types of cows”

[Al-Mughni by Ibn Qudaamah: 2/444]

Imaam Ibn Taymiyyah writes:

الْجَوَامِيسُ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْبَقَرِ

“Buffalos are just like cows”

[Majmoo Fatawa by Ibn Taymiyyah: 25/37]

Imaam Hassan al-Basari said:

الْجَوَامِيسُ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْبَقَرِ

“Buffalos are just like cows”

[Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah: 3/219, Chain Saheeh]

Haafidh Ibn Hazam writes:

الْجَوَامِيسُ صِنْفٌ مِنْ الْبَقَرِ

“Buffalo is a type of cow”

[Al-Muhalla by Ibn Hazam: 4/89]


We request those who say that the permissibility of Buffalo is not proven from Qur’aan and Hadeeth, to pay close attention to the proofs and Ijmaa mentioned above. And now we request you (O Muqallideen) to prove the permissibility of Buffalo from your Imaam whose taqleed you proclaim all around and if you cannot prove this from him with an authentic chain, then…….


Buffalo is Halaal according to the rules and principles of Sharee’ah. The one who says that Allaah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) did not make it Halaal then he has attributed a huge lie and falsehood to Allaah and His Messenger (peace be upon him).

May Allaah guide us all and give us the ability to understand his religion. Ameen!


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