Author: Shaikh Ataa ur-Rehmaan Alvi, the teacher of Daarul Uloom Muhammadiyah, Lahore.
Translator: Raza Hassan
The religion of Islaam is a very easy madhab and the madhab that provides sufficient benefits. One of these benefits include that a person, especially in winter, can wipe over his socks without taking them off. Many people are of the view to wipe over the socks of leather [Khuffayn], and as for wiping over the socks of cotton or other type [Jawrabayn] then there is a difference of opinion. In this article, we will discuss the proofs of wiping over the socks [of any kind], and we will also mention some of their rulings. In-sha-Allaah
Wiping over the Khuffayn:
- 1- Mugheerah bin Shu’bah (radiallah anhu) said: We were with the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) in his caravan and I had the container of water. He (peace be upon him) went to answer the call of nature then came back to us, so I went ahead towards him with water. I poured water on the hands of the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him). He (peace be upon him) washed his hands, then washed his face, then he (peace be upon him) wished to take his arms out of his sleeves but he was wearing a roomi cloak whose sleeves were tight that’s why he could not get his arms out, so he (peace be upon him) took his arms out from beneath the cloak, then I bent down to take his socks off, so he (peace be upon him) said:
“Leave them, when I put my feet in them, they were Taahir (clean)” so then he (peace be upon him) wiped over his socks. [Bukhaari: 182; Muslim; Sunan Abu Dawood: 1/38 H. 151; Chain Saheeh; and others]
- 2- Sa’d bin Abi Waqqaas and Amr bin Umayyah (radiallah anhum) also narrated from the Prophet (peace be upon him) that He (peace be upon him) wiped over his socks. [Saheeh Bukhaari: 202, 204]
Explanation of Khuffayn:
Thin leather which is worn on the feet is called Khuff. The author of al-Minhal said:
Shara’ee sock is that which covers the ankle, and it is possible to walk three miles with it, and this tathniyah is used because it is not permissible to wipe over only one sock. [al-Minhal: 1/101]
Wiping over the Jawrabayn:
Like Khuffayn, it is also permissible to wipe over the jawrabayn and no one among the Sahaabah has differed over this issue.
- 1- It is narrated from Thawbaan (radiallah anhu) that: The Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) once sent a Jihaadi troop, so those people were struck by cold. When these People came to the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) so he (peace be upon him) told them to wipe over their turbans and the things (socks) that provide warmness (to the feet). [Abu Dawood: 1/36 H. 146; Musnad Ahmed: 5/277; Chain Saheeh]
The word “Tasakhain” is used in this hadeeth, whose meaning is something which provides warmness and they can be the socks of Leather as well as the socks of cotton
- 2- Azraq bin Qays saw Anas bin Maalik (radiallah anhu) that his wudoo invalidated, so he (radiallah anhu) washed his hands and face and wiped over his “cotton socks”. Azraq said: I asked: “Do you even wipe over these?!” so he replied: “These ‘Khuffaan’ are also socks even though they are made of cotton” [al-Asmaa wal Kuni by Dolaabi: 1/181; Muqaddimah of Ahmed Shaakir on “Masah Ala al-Jawrabayn” by Jamaal ud-Deen Qaasmi, and Ta’leeq Jaami’ ut-Tirmidhi by Ahmed Shaakir]
This is the action of Anas (radiallah anhu) as well as the explanation that the word “Khuffayn” can also be used for the socks of cotton. Anas (radiallah anhu) is the Sahaabi of the people of language, and the meaning that he mentions is far more superior than what the later people of Lughat said. Therefore, the narrations which mention to wipe over the “Khuffayn”, also include wiping over the Jawrabayn [cotton socks]. No matter if the Jawrab is thick or thin, it has leather on it or not, Anas (radiallah anhu) has included it into “Khuff” without any restriction by saying:
“These are Khuffs, but they are made of Cotton”
Wiping over the Jawrabayn according to the Sahaabah (radiallah anhum):
Imaam Abu Dawood said: “Ali bin Abi Taalib, Abu Mas’ood, Bara bin Aazib, Anas bin Maalik, Abu Umaamah, Sahl bin Sa’d, and Amr bin Hurayth (radiallah anhum) wiped over their jawrabayn. And it is also narrated from Umar bin Khattaab and Ibn Abbaas (radiallah anhum) to wipe over the jawrabayn.” [Sunan Abu Dawood: Under H. 159]
Imaam Ibn Qudaamah said: “They (the Sahaabah) wiped over their socks (Jawrab) and no opposition was originated from their era, so this proves that there is Ijmaa (consensus) (of Sahaabah) that wiping over the socks is correct.” [Al-Mughni by Ibn Qudaamah: 1/181]
- Ali (radiallah anhu) wiped over his Jawrabayn. [al-Awsat by Ibn al-Mundhir: 1/426]
- Abu Umaamah (radiallah anhu) also wiped over his Jawrabayn. [al-Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah: 1/188]
- Bara bin Aazib (radiallah anhu) also wiped over his jawrabayn. [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah: 1/188]
- Sa’d bin Sa’d (radiallah anhu) also wiped over his jawrabayan. [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah: 1/188]
- Ibn Umar (radiallah anhu) said: “Wiping over the Jawrabayn is just like wiping over the Kuffayn (meaning, permissible)” [Al-Masah Ala al-Jawrabayn: Pg 54; Al-Awsat by al-Mundhir: 1/462, Chain Hasan]
For more Athaar of Sahaabah see, Al-Awsat by al-Mundhir: 1/462-464; and Nayl al-Awtaar with the tahqeeq of Muhammad Sabhi bin Hasan: 2/171.
Imaam Ishaaq bin Rahwayh said: “There is no difference of opinion among Sahaabah on this issue.” [al-Awsat: 12/464-465]
Wiping over Jawrabayn and the Taabi’een:
A huge number of Taabi’een was of the view to wipe over the jawrabayn, and they used to consider the Jawrabayn to be of the same ruling as that of Khuffayn. While mentioning them, Ibn Hazam said in al-Muhalla that Qatadah, Sa’eed bin al-Musayyab, Ata bin Abi Ribaah, Ibraaheem Nakha’ee, A’mash, Hassan Basari, Khallaas ibn Amr, Sa’eed bin Jubayr, Naafi’, and others were of the view to wipe over the jawrabayn. [Al-Muhalla bil Athaar: 1/323-324]
For more athaar of Sa’eed bin Jubayr and Ibraaheem Nakha’ee, see: Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah: 1977-1090.
Ahnaaf and wiping over the Jawrabayn:
Abu Haneefah was not of the view to wipe over the jawrabayn at the first place. In fact, Abu Yoosuf and Muhammas bin Hassan ash-Shaybaani were of the view to wipe over only thick jawrabayn which could not absorb water. And for the evidence of wiping over the Jawrabayn, they too used the hadeeth of Mugheerah bin Shu’bah (radiallah anhu) [Sunan Nasaa’ee: 125]. And later in life, during his sick days, Abu Haneefah as well, turned towards the madhab of his students by wiping over his jawrabayn. And this is what Ahnaaf give fatwa on today. [Mulhiz of Hidayah: Pg 61, Badaai as-Sanaai, and Hashiah on al-Hidayah by Abdul Hay Lakhnawi].
The restriction that Ahnaaf have put of thick socks or the socks which could not absorb water is not proven from the Sharee’ah. Therefore, the conditions which have no basis in the Sharee’ah are not acceptable.
Arab Scholars and wiping over the Jawrabayn:
Arab Scholars have also given the fatwa of wiping over the jawrabayn Mutlaqan, whether it be of cotton, wool or anyother kind. [Majmoo Fatawa wa Maqalaat by Ibn Baaz: 10/110, and Fatawa Lajnah Daa’imah: 5/263]
- 1- In order to wipe over the Jawrabayn or Khuffayn, it is a condition that they must cover the parts of feet which are obligatory to wash in wudoo.
- 2- They must be worn while in the state of purification (wudoo).
- 3- They need to be wiped over within the permissible period prescribed in Sharee’ah. Wiping over them after the period has passed is not permissible.
- 4- The purification for which you are wiping should not be to clean yourself from Janabah. Because in order to be pure from Janabah, it is necessary to wash the feet.
- 5- There is no specific method for wiping over the socks proven from any Saheeh hadeeth. However, only the upper part of the feet will be wiped. [Abu Dawood: 162]
And the right foot should be wiped first, because we are commanded to start from right side in wudoo. [Ahl us-Sunan]
Wiping over the torn Jawrabayn and Khuffayn:
- 1- It is correct to do Masah (wiping) over all kinds of socks whether they are torn or fine. As long as the word Jawrabayn or Khuffayn applies to them, wiping over them is also permissible. The one who differentiates between torn and untorn socks, the daleel is upon him to provide.
- 2- During the era of the Prophet (peace be upon him), Sahaabah used to wear socks and walk in them. It is obvious that their socks would also have holes in them because of walking, but the Prophet (peace be upon him) never put any restriction of torn or socks with holes and neither did he differentiated.
- 3- Imaam Sufyaan ath-Thawree (rahimahullah) said: “Wipe over your socks as long as they are hanging with your feet, and the socks of Muhaajireen and Ansaar Sahaabah (radiallah anhum) also used to be torn and had holes” [Musannaf Abdur Razzaaq: 1/194]
- 4- The Arab Scholars have also given fatawa that it is permissible to wipe over the torn or socks with holes, as long as the feet do not come under the ruling of being naked. [Fatawa Lajnah: 5/236]
What if the socks are taken off after wiping over them?
If while doing wudoo, the person wipes over his socks, and later he takes them off then his wudoo would be safe and valid, because there is no daleel for wudoo getting invalid, and the action of one of the righeous caliphs, Ali (radiallah anhu) is also in accodance to this.
Abu Dhibyaan narrates that: I saw Ali (radiallah anhu) that he urinated then called for water and performed wudoo and wiped over his shoes then he entered the mosque and took his shoes off, and performed prayer while leading the people. [Bayhaqi: 1/288; Sharh Ma’ani ul-Athaar: 1/76]
This makes it clear that he (radiallah anhu) considered his wudoo to be valid even after taking his shoes off on which he had wiped and no one objected on it, which proves the consent of everyone.
Shaikh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah wrote in his book “Al-Ikhtiyaaraat” that if the one wiping over his socks and turban, takes them off then his wudoo does not become invalidated, and neither does it necessitate the washing of head or feet. Imaam Hassan al-Basari, Imaam Ahmed, and the Jumhoor are of the same opinion.
Imaam Ibn Abi Shaybah has narrated the issue of taking the socks off from Imaam Hassan al-Basari with a Saheeh chain. Ibraaheem an-Nakha’ee, Tawoos, Qataadah, and Ataa bin Abi Ribaah (rahimahumullah) have also accorded Imaam Hassan Basari in this issue. [For more details see: Tamaam al-Minnah by Shaikh Albaani: 114]
If a person unknowingly puts on his socks without Taharah (Wudoo):
If a person unknowingly or mistakenly wipes over the socks which he put on when he did not have wudoo and performs prayer in that, then he must repeat his prayer because it is a condition that in order to wipe over the socks, they must have been worn in the state of wudoo. Therefore, the condition is not fulfilled so the wudoo is not complete also. Thus, there is no taharah, and there is no prayer without taharah.
The Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) said: “The prayer is not accepted without Taharah (Wudoo)” [Saheeh Muslim, Saheefah Hammaam bin Munabbih and others]
The fatawa of Shaikh Ibn Baaz and the Fatawa Comittee of Arab also say that the prayer must be repeated. [Majmoo Fatawa wa Maqalaat by Ibn Baaz: 10/110-116; and Fatawa al-Lajnah ad-Daaimah: 5/265]
The period within which Masah (wiping) is permissible:
- 1- A resident can wipe over his socks for one day and one night, while a traveller can wipe over his socks for three days and three nights. [Abu Dawood: 158; Tirmidhi: 95]
- 2- Some people do not limit it to a specific period, and their evidence are the two ahadeeth of Abu Dawood [1/40 H. 157 & 158]
But both those two ahadeeth are Da’eef. The first hadeeth is Da’eef because it contains Ibraaheem Taymee in its chain, who is a Mudallis. And the second one contains Abdur Rahmaan bin Zareen, Muhammad bin Yazeed, and Ayyoob bin Qatan, and all three of them are Majhool (unknown), as said by Imaam Daraqutni. [See: Anwaar us-Saheefah by Shaikh Zubair Ali Zai: Pg 18, 19]
When does the period of masah start?
When the person would wipe over his socks for the first time after the invalidation of his wudoo, this is when the period will start, not when he first wears them. This is the opinion of Imaam Awzaa’ee, Imaam Abu Thawr and others.
For example: A man puts his socks on after washing his feet at the time of Dhuhr; and he prayed Asr, Maghrib, and Isha with the same wudoo. Then on the next day, he wiped over his socks while doing wudoo for fajr, then his period will start on this day from fajr, and this is where he will start counting his days and nights.
This is also the Fatwa of Shaikh Ibn Baaz (rahimahullah). [Majmoo al-Fatawa wa Maqalaat: 10/106]
Shaikh Abdullah Bassaam has also adopted this view in his Sharh of Buloogh ul-Maraam. [Tozeeh ul-Ahkaam: 1/214]
Would taharah (wudoo) also be ended with the end of the period?
Until a person’s wudoo is established after the end of the period and he does not release any gas or does not do anyting which would invalidate his wudoo then his wudoo is safe and valid. He can perform prayers even after the end of the period if he keeps his taharah.
Imaam Ibn Hazam said in al-Muhalla that according to Ibraaheem Nakha’ee, Hassan Basari, Ibn Abi Laila, and Dawood Dhaahiri, a person can keep performing prayers with the same wudoo until his wudoo is invalidated [after the end of the period]. [Al-Muhalla with tahqeeq of Abdul Ghaffaar Sulemaan al-Baghdaadi: 1/329